A hazardous materials accident can occur anywhere. Communities located near chemical manufacturing plants are particularly at risk. However, hazardous materials are transported on our roadways, railways and waterways daily, so any area is considered vulnerable to an accident.
Learn to detect the presence of a hazardous material. Many hazardous materials do not have a taste or an odor. Some materials can be detected because they cause physical reactions such as watering eyes or nausea. Some hazardous materials exist beneath the surface of the ground and can be recognized by an oil or foam-like appearance.
Contact your Local Emergency Planning Committee about hazardous materials and community response plans.
Find out evacuation plans for your workplace and your children's schools.
Be ready to evacuate. Plan several evacuation routes out of the area.
Ask about industry and community warning systems.
Have disaster supplies on hand.
Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are separated from one another during a hazardous materials accident (this is a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster.
Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone knows the name, address and phone number of the contact person.
If you hear a siren or other warning signal, turn on a radio or television for further emergency information.
If Caught at the Scene of an Accident
If you see an accident, call 9-1-1 or the local fire department to report the nature and location of the accident as soon as possible.
Move away from the accident scene and help keep others away.
Do not walk into or touch any of the spilled substance. Try not to inhale gases, fumes and smoke. If possible, cover mouth with a cloth while leaving the area.
Stay away from accident victims until the hazardous material has been identified.
Try to stay upstream, uphill and upwind of the accident.
If Asked to Stay Indoors ("In-Place Sheltering")
Seal house so contaminants cannot enter.
Assisting Accident Victims: Don't try to care for victims of a hazardous materials accident until the substance has been identified and authorities indicate it is safe to go near victims. Then you can move victims to fresh air and call for emergency medical care. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. Cleanse victims that have come in contact with chemicals by immediately pouring cold water over the skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes, unless authorities instruct you not to use water on the particular chemical involved.
Bring pets inside.
Immediately after the "in-place sheltering" announcement is issued, fill up bathtubs or large containers for an additional water supply and turn off the intake valve to the house.
If gas or vapors could have entered the building, take shallow breaths through a cloth or a towel.
Avoid eating or drinking any food or water that may be contaminated.
Monitor the Emergency Broadcast System station for further updates and remain in shelter until authorities indicate it is safe to come out.
Evacuation: Authorities will decide if evacuation is necessary based primarily on the type and amount of chemical released and how long it is expected to affect an area. Other considerations are the length of time it should take to evacuate the area, weather conditions, and the time of day.
If Asked to Evacuate
Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes, temporary shelters, and procedures.
Follow the routes recommended by the authorities shortcuts may not be safe. Leave at once.
If you have time, minimize contamination in the house by closing all windows, shutting all vents, and turning off attic fans.
Take pre-assembled disaster supplies.
Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance infants, elderly people and people with disabilities.
Return home only when authorities say it is safe.
Follow local instructions concerning the safety of food and water.
Clean up and dispose of residue carefully. Follow instructions from emergency officials concerning clean-up methods.
Hazardous Materials Incidents by Transportation Mode (totals, 1983 thru 1990*)
|Mode of Transportation||Number of Accidents||Associated Deaths||Associated Injuries|
Between 1982 and 1991, there were an annual average of 6,774 hazardous materials transportation incidents. In 1991, there were 9,069 transportation incidents that resulted in 10 deaths and 436 injuries.
Hazardous materials are chemical substances, which if released or misused can pose a threat to the environment or health. These chemicals are used in industry, agriculture, medicine, research, and consumer goods. Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and combustible substances, poisons, and radioactive materials. These substances are most often released as a result of transportation accidents or because of chemical accidents in plants.
Most victims of chemical accidents are injured at home. These incidents usually result from ignorance or carelessness in using flammable or combustible materials.
More than 30 states have passed laws giving workers and citizens access to information about hazardous substances in their workplaces and communities.
As many as 500,000 products pose physical or health hazards and can be defined as "hazardous chemicals." Each year, over 1,000 new synthetic chemicals are introduced.
The Department of Transportation regulates routes and speed limits used by carriers and monitors the types of hazardous materials crossing state lines.
In an average city of 100,000 residents, 23.5 tons of toilet bowl cleaner, 13.5 tons of liquid household cleaners, and 3.5 tons of motor oil are discharged into city drains each month.
The U.S. Department of Transportation employs a labeling and placarding system for identifying the types of hazardous materials that are transported along the nation's highways, railways, and waterways. This system enables local emergency officials to identify the nature and potential health threat of chemicals being transported into your community. Were a chemical accident to occur in your community, local emergency officials and the fire department would be able to determine the proper emergency response procedures for the situation by the type of placard or warning label.
In 1986, Congress passed the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. Title III of this legislation requires that each community establish a Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) to be responsible for developing an emergency plan for preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies in that community. This emergency plan must include the following: an identification of local facilities and transportation routes where hazardous material are present; the procedures for immediate response in case of an accident (this must include a community-wide evacuation plan); a plan for notifying the community that an incident has occurred; the names of response coordinators at local facilities; and a plan for conducting exercises to test the plan. The plan is reviewed by the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) and publicized throughout the community. The LEPC is required to review, test, and update the plan each year.