Chapter 29 ZONING*
Section 29-2 Definitions.
For the purpose of this chapter, the following words and terms as used are defined
to mean the
Accessory building or use. A detached subordinate building having a use
to and located on the lot occupied by the main building; or a use customarily incident to the main
use of the property.
Adult day care home. A group home designed to provide care and supervision
to meet the
needs of five (5) or more functionally impaired adults for periods of less than twenty-four (24)
consecutive hours but more than two (2) hours per day in a place other than the adult's home.
Alley. A public right-of-way which is used primarily for vehicular service
access to the back or
side of properties otherwise abutting on a street.
Amusement game machine. A coin-operated machine or device which, whether
electrical or electronic, shall be ready for play by the insertion of a coin, token or other type of
fee and may be operated by the public for use as a game, entertainment or amusement, the object
of which is to achieve either a high or low score, which, by comparison to the score of other
players, whether playing concurrently or not, demonstrates relative skill or competence, or
indicates in any other way competitive advantage of one player or team over another, regardless
of skill or competence. It shall include devices such as pinball machines or any device which
utilizes a video tube to reproduce symbolic figures and lines intended to be representative of real
games or activities. Any machine of this type shall be considered an accessory use to the
commercial establishment in which it is located.
Bed and breakfast establishment. A residential building containing not
more than five (5)
guest rooms which provides sleeping units and meals for transient guests, and which is managed
and occupied by the owner of the property.
Block. A parcel of land entirely surrounded by public highways or streets,
other than alleys. In
plats which are incomplete or disconnected, the director of
determine the outline of the block.
Board. The board of adjustment of the city.
Boardinghouse or lodging house. A building occupied as a single housekeeping
lodging or meals are provided for five (5) or more persons for compensation, pursuant to
previous arrangements, but not for the public or transients; or a building occupied as a group
home by five (5) or more persons, each of whom is either a recovering alcoholic or a recovering
Channel. A natural or artificial watercourse with a definite bed and
banks which confine and
conduct the normal continuous or intermittent flow of water.
City. The City of Columbia, Missouri.
Clinic. A building used solely as a place for the treatment and diagnosis
Commission. The planning and zoning commission of the City of Columbia,
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC). A large scale facility
(or integrated group
of facilities) that has a primary purpose of providing housing and continuing care for retirement-age
persons, and that consists of CCRC independent living units, CCRC assisted living facilities
and CCRC support facilities. Such facilities may also include a CCRC skilled care nursing
facility. Continuing care means the provision of lodging, nursing, medical or other
related services at the same community.
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) independent living unit.
A dwelling unit
within a CCRC containing living area(s), bedroom area(s), kitchen area and bathroom(s),
including apartments, detached homes, or attached townhomes, which houses one or more people
in a manner in which they may live independently and may receive one or more meals per day in
a congregate setting.
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) assisted living facility (also
licensed as a
residential care facility). A facility located within a CCRC that provides a residential living
environment, including congregate meals, housekeeping, and personal services for retirement-age
persons and spouses, who have temporary or periodic difficulties with one or more essential
activities of daily living, such as feeding, bathing, dressing or mobility, or memory care issues,
but do not require services generally offered in a long-term care facility or nursing facility. A
CCRC assisted living facility or residential care facility includes dwelling units, dining room(s),
bathing area(s), common area(s), offices and other spaces necessary to provide the above
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) skilled care nursing facility. A facility
located within a CCRC that provides board, shelter and twenty-four (24) hour skilled nursing and
medical care to chronic or convalescent patients. A CCRC skilled care nursing facility includes
nursing beds or individual rooms, dining rooms, bathing areas, common areas, offices, clinics,
therapy areas, medical facilities and other space necessary to provide the above services. Such
facilities are accessory to the principal functions of the CCRC and are subordinate in size and
area occupied on the site.
Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) support facilities. Facilities
located within a CCRC intended to support the lifestyles of the residents and their visitors. Such
facilities may include arts-and-crafts rooms, automatic teller machines (ATMs), chapels, studios,
gardens and wellness clubs, small on-site commercial facilities intended for residents, visitors
and staff that are owned or operated by the CCRC owner or operated under direct contract with
the owner such as general stores, hair salons, postal centers, medical services that may include
therapy, home health care, private duty nursing, hospice care, pharmacies, circuit health and
dental care which are intended to provide for continuity of care to CCRC residents (past or
current), shuttle bus services, and regular programs that take advantage of local cultural and
Cooperative. A development in which individual ownership is a share of
Cooperative house. A building used for living quarters by a group or
groups of persons sharing
the costs of operation.
Council. The city council of the City of Columbia, Missouri.
Court. An open space, other than a yard, on the same lot with a building
and which is bounded on two (2) or more sides by the walls of such building or buildings.
Court apartment building. An apartment building constructed around a
Curb level. The mean elevation of the curb in front of the lot, or along
any abutting street
where the median curb elevation is the highest.
Development. Any man-made change to all real estate, including but not
limited to building,
mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavating or drilling operations.
Dormitory. A building devoted exclusively to living facilities, in which
each person residing in
each living unit shall be a duly registered student in any accredited school, college or university,
the spouse of such student, or a management employee. Such living facilities may contain
sleeping rooms for use of one or more persons, provided that there is at least one hundred fifty
(150) square feet of floor space for the first occupant thereof and at least one hundred (100)
additional square feet of floor space for every additional occupant thereof, the floor space to be
calculated on the basis of total habitable room area.
Driveway. An area established or used for ingress and egress of vehicles
from a street or
thoroughfare to any point on private property.
Dwelling, accessory (also known as an accessory dwelling unit or ADU).
dwelling unit created on a lot with a principal one-family dwelling and which is subordinate to
the principal dwelling. Accessory dwellings may be attached to the principal dwelling or built
a detached structure.
Dwelling, multiple-family. A building containing three (3) or more dwelling
Dwelling, one-family. A building containing one dwelling unit.
Dwelling, one-family attached (also known as twin house,
zero lot line, single-family
attached, semi-attached, and semi-detached). A building containing
two (2) attached
dwelling units that share a common wall at the lot line and that are on separate lots.
(also known as duplex)
. A building containing two (2) dwelling
, situated on a single lot
Dwelling Unit. A building or portion thereof, designed to house
Dwelling, Villa. A one-family attached dwelling that is
subject to the design criteria set forth
in section 29-10.
(1) An individual
, or registered domestic partnership
and the children
thereof and no more than two (2) other persons related directly to the individual
or registered domestic partnership
by blood or marriage, occupying a single
housekeeping unit on a nonprofit basis. A family may include not more than one additional
person, not related to the family by blood or marriage; or
(2) a. 1. In
zoning districts R-1 and PUD (when the PUD development density is five (5) or
less dwelling units per acre), a group of not more than three (3) persons not related by
or registered domestic partnership
, living together by joint agreement and
occupying a single housekeeping unit on a nonprofit cost-sharing basis.
2. The use of a dwelling
unit by four (4) persons not related by blood
registered domestic partnership
, living together by joint agreement and occupying a single
housekeeping unit on a nonprofit cost-sharing basis, prior to February 4, 1991, shall be allowed
to continue in districts R-1 and R-1 PUD as a lawful nonconforming use.
all other applicable zoning districts, a group of not more than four (4) persons
not related by blood
or registered domestic partnership
, living together by joint
agreement and occupying a single housekeeping unit on a nonprofit cost-sharing basis.
Family day care homes, day care centers, preschool centers, nursery schools,
centers, child education centers, child experiment stations or child development institutions. A
place for reception, care, training or instruction of five (5) or more children, not of common
parentage, residing therein, regardless of sex, under the age of eighteen (18) years, for
compensation or otherwise, provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed as
applying to the regularly established public or parochial schools, colleges, universities,
academies or seminaries, or other schools or institutions organized under and by virtue of the
laws of the United States or the State of Missouri, and under the supervision of the duly
constituted authorities thereof.
Flood boundary floodway map (FBFW). An official map delineating
the floodway, floodway
fringe, one hundred-year floodplain, and five hundred-year floodplain. The FBFW is prepared in
conjunction with the flood insurance study (FIS).
Floodproofing. Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions,
adjustments to structures, including utility and sanitary facilities, which would preclude the entry
of water. Structural components shall have the capability of resisting hydrostatic and
hydrodynamic loads and the effect of buoyancy.
Game arcade. Any commercial building in which there are more than three
game machines on the premises which are available to the public. An arcade may contain
commercial recreational machines or games other than amusement game machines.
Garage, private. A building designed for storage of motor vehicles.
Garage sales. The sale or offering for sale to the general public of
over five (5) items of personal property on
any portion of a lot in a residential zoning district, whether within or outside any building. Sales
of programs and food and beverage items at school athletic events shall not be deemed to
constitute garage sales.
Group care home for mentally retarded children. A facility which provides
care, treatment or
custody for four (4) to nine (9) mentally retarded children under the age of sixteen (16) years and
affords the opportunity for utilization of community educational, recreational and health facilities
and which is licensed as a group care home under Chapter 202, RSMo., 1969.
Group home for foster care. Any private residence licensed by the division
of family services
or department of mental health to provide foster care to one or more but less than seven (7)
children who are unrelated to either foster parent by blood, marriage or adoption.
Group home for mentally or physically handicapped. Any home in which
eight (8) or fewer
mentally or physically handicapped persons reside, and may include two (2) additional persons
acting as houseparents or guardians who need not be related to each other or to any of the
mentally or physically handicapped persons residing in the home.
Halfway house. A residential facility primarily for persons who have
been institutionalized for
various reasons and released, and require the temporary protection of a group setting to facilitate
the transition to society.
Halfway house for young offenders. A not-for-profit institution which
individuals between the ages of seventeen (17) and twenty-five (25) who have not been
imprisoned (except for "shock probation" terms) and have not been convicted of adult or juvenile
violent crimes (as defined by the Missouri Department of Corrections), which has 24-hour on-duty staff,
and which is designed to provide an alternative to prison for young offenders.
Hazardous Material - Any material or substance listed in
40 CFR Part 355, Appendix A, as an
Extremely Hazardous Substance when that substance is stored, generated, used or released in
quantities equal to or greater than the lowest quantity listed for either the Threshold Planning
Quantity or Reporting Quantity for the substance; any materials designated hazardous and
subject to special requirements by the federal government or the State of Missouri.
Height of buildings. The vertical distance measured from the highest
of the following three (3)
(1) From the street curb elevation.
(2) From the established or mean street elevation if
the curb has not been established.
(3) From the average finished ground elevation of the
portion of the lot adjoining and within
ten (10) feet of the building where it sits back from the street line ten (10) feet or more, to the
elevation of the highest point of the roof beams of flat roofs or roofs inclining not more than one
inch to the foot, and to the mean elevation of the top of the main plate and highest ridge for other
Hotel. A building occupied or used as a temporary abiding place of individuals
or groups of
individuals who are lodgers, with or without meals, and in which there are more than twelve (12)
Hundred-year flood. The base flood having a one percent chance of annual
Landscaping. The improvement of a lot, parcel or tract of land with a
combination of grasses,
trees, ground cover, shrubs, flowerbeds, ornamental gravel and statuary, and other objects
designed and arranged to produce an aesthetically pleasing effect.
Light industrial. Research and development activities, the manufacturing, compounding,
processing, packaging, storage, assembly, treatment of finished or semi-finished products from
previously prepared materials, servicing or sale of consumer products, which activities are
conducted wholly within an enclosed building.
Live adult entertainment business. Any place of business at which any employee, patron
other person is required, encouraged or allowed to dance or perform any activity on the business
premises for the entertainment, amusement or viewing of others while exposing to view any
portion of the persons buttocks, pubic area, or, in the case of a female, any portion of the breast
below the top of the areola.
Live/work unit. A building or space within a building used jointly for non-residential
Lot. A tract or parcel of land which:
(1) Is set forth as a lot on an approved recorded plat;
(2) a. Is zoned A-1, R-1 or R-2,
or any combination thereof, and was described by a metes
and bounds description accurately describing the location, boundaries and size of the tract on a
recorded instrument prior to annexation into the city or prior to October 5, 1964; or
b. Is zoned A-1, R-1 or R-2,
or any combination thereof, and was described by an accurate
written description, recorded prior to annexation into the city or prior to October 5, 1964, that
referred to an existing recorded subdivision or existing land survey; or
c. Is zoned any district and
contains less than one (1) acre of land area and is partially or
fully developed with an existing principal building(s) at the time of application for a
development permit and was described by a metes and bounds or other written description
accurately describing the location, boundaries and size of the tract on a recorded instrument prior
to annexation into the City or prior to October 5, 1964; or
(3) Is zoned A-1, R-1 or R-2,
or any combination thereof, and was described by a recorded
survey prior to annexation; or
(4) Was platted as a lot in a
recorded subdivision plat prior to October 5, 1964, or
described by a recorded survey prior to October 5, 1964; or
(5) Is a portion of one (1) or more platted lots in a
recorded subdivision plat prior to
annexation or prior to October 5, 1964; and was described on a recorded instrument prior to
annexation or prior to October 5, 1964
and the director, after having consulted with the director
of public works and all applicable utility providers, has certified that no additional easements or
right-of-way dedications relating to the property are needed
When a portion of a tract of land is acquired for highway or other public purposes, such division
of ownership shall not affect the remainder of the tract in meeting the definition of a lot so long
as the original tract met the definition of a lot under one of the above provisions.
For purposes of this definition, the term recorded means recorded in the office of the Boone
County Recorder of Deeds.
Lot, corner. A lot abutting upon two (2) or more streets at their intersection.
A corner lot shall
be deemed to front on that street on which it has its least dimension, unless otherwise specified
by the director of
Lot depth. The median horizontal distance from the front property line
to the rear line.
Lot, front of. The front of a lot shall be considered to be that part
of a lot which abuts and has
access to a public street, except for corner lots.
Lot, interior. A lot whose side lines do not abut any streets.
Lot line, front. The boundary between a lot and the street on which it
Lot line, rear. The boundary line which is opposite and most distant
from the front property
line or that boundary line of an irregularly shaped lot that the director of
shall determine to be the rear lot line.
Lot line, side. Any lot boundary line not a front or rear line.
Lot lines. The lines bounding a lot as defined herein.
Lot, through. An interior lot having frontage on two (2) streets.
Lot width. The mean horizontal distance between side lines measured at
right angles to the
depth at the building line.
Manufactured home. A factory-built structure which in the traveling mode
is eight (8) body
feet or more in width or forty (40) body feet or more in length, or when erected on site contains
three hundred twenty (320) or more square feet, which is equipped with the necessary service
connections and made so as to be readily movable as a unit on its own running gear and designed
to be used as a single-family dwelling unit with or without a permanent foundation.
The phrase "without a permanent foundation" indicates that the support
system is constructed
with the intent that the manufactured home placed thereon may be moved from time to time at
the convenience of the owner.
The term "mobile home" shall be included in, and shall be synonymous
with, the term
Manufactured home park. A parcel of land which has been planned and improved
placement of manufactured homes for nontransient use.
Manufactured home space. A parcel of land for the placement of a single
and the exclusive use of its occupants.
Manufactured home stand. Improvement on a manufactured home lot constructed
purpose of providing a structural base for the manufactured home.
Medical Laboratory. A facility primarily engaged in providing
analytic or diagnostic services
on human specimens, including body fluid or body tissue, or performing diagnostic imaging, to
government agencies, to the medical, dental, or other health service professions or to the patient;
includes the fabrication of dentures, eyeglasses and contact lenses, and prosthetic devices.
Motel. One or more buildings containing individual sleeping or living
units, designed for or
used temporarily by automobile tourists or transients, with garage attached or parking space
conveniently located to each unit.
Net developable acreage. The area of a lot or lots that is usable for
densities after land not suitable or restricted from development (such as road, drainage or
preservation areas) have been subtracted from the total acreage.
Nonconforming use, building, or yard. A use, building or yard which does
not, by reason of
design, use or dimensions, conform to the regulations of the district in which it is situated.
Overlay district. A district which acts in conjunction with the underlying
zoning district or
Parking space. A parcel of land or floor space as specified in Section
29-30 Off-Street Parking
and Loading Regulations containing a minimum area of eight and a half (8½) by eighteen (18)
feet and designed for accommodating the temporary storage of a motor vehicle.
Place. An open, unoccupied space, a minimum of fifty (50) feet in width,
other than a street or
alley, permanently established or dedicated as the principal means of access to property abutting
Private club. An organized group of people not open to or intended for,
or controlled by the public, or for the
use of the public.
Research and Development Laboratory - A facility primarily engaged in conducting scientific
research, experimental design, and prototype development of devices or products in the physical,
engineering, or life sciences (excluding laboratory testing that qualifies under the definition of
Medical Laboratory) , such as agriculture, electronics, biology, biotechnology, chemistry,
geology, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary, and other allied subjects; does not include the
manufacturing, servicing or sale of consumer products.
Residential care facility. A residential institution, whether operated
for profit or not, which
provides personal care, custody, or treatment for five (5) or more individuals not related to the
operator who, for reasons of illness, mental retardation, advanced age, or physical handicaps, are
unable to care for themselves.
Scenic roadway. A street designated by the city council as a scenic roadway
procedure outlined in section 29-21.2(e).
Scenic roadway area. The area of land lying within two hundred (200)
feet and on each side of
the right of way of a scenic roadway.
Self service storage facility. A building, or group of buildings, with
containing separate storage spaces or compartmentalized units of varying sizes, with no unit
exceeding six hundred (600) square feet, that are rented or leased to tenants, with no tenant
leasing more than two thousand (2000) square feet, for the storage of goods.
Solar energy system. A complete design or assembly consisting of a solar
energy collector, an
energy storage facility (where used), and components for the distribution of transformed energy.
Stormwater management plan. A detailed design in conformance with the
standards on file
with the public works department signed and sealed by an engineer licensed to practice in the
State of Missouri.
Street. A public thoroughfare or place which affords principal means
of access to property
Structure. Anything constructed or erected, which requires location on
the ground, or attached
to something having a location on the ground; including, but not limited to, advertising signs,
billboards and poster panels, but exclusive of customary fences or boundary or retaining walls.
(As used for the floodplain overlay district, a walled and roofed structure including a gas or
liquid storage tank, that is principally above the ground.)
Structural alterations. Any change in the supporting members of a building,
such as bearing
walls, columns, beams or girders.
Substantial improvement. Any repair, reconstruction, or other change
of a structure, the cost of
which equals or exceeds fifty (50) percent of the market value of the structure either:
(1) Before the improvement is started; or
(2) If the structure has been damaged and was being restored,
before the damage occurred.
In the case of a nonconforming structure, restoration of damage is considered
improvement" which the cost equals or exceeds fifty (50) percent of the structure's market value.
For the purposes of this definition "substantial improvement" is considered to occur when
first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of the building commences,
whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure. The term does not,
however, include any alteration to comply with existing state or local health, sanitary, building,
or safety codes or regulations.
Temporary shelter. A residential facility that primarily
provides temporary housing with
accommodations for five (5) or more people for little or no financial compensation and that is
operated in a manner that provides staff supervision and other support services. The length of
time that such persons may stay at the shelter may be indefinite but is not intended to be
Testing Laboratory - A facility primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other
analytical testing services, such as electrical, environmental, geotechnical, industrial,
mechanical, radiation, thermal, vibration or other similar testing.
(1) A vehicular, portable structure built on a chassis
and designed for temporary occupancy
for travel, recreational or vacation use; and when factory-equipped for the road, being of any
weight, provided its overall length is less than forty (40) feet or is less than three hundred twenty
(320) square feet in floor area;
(2) A structure designed to be mounted on a truck chassis
for use as a temporary dwelling for
travel, recreation, and vacation;
(3) A portable, temporary dwelling to be used for
travel, recreational and vacation purposes,
constructed as an integral part of a self-propelling vehicle; or
(4) A canvas, folding structure, mounted on wheels and
designed for travel, recreation and
Travel trailer park. A parcel of land which has been improved for the
placement of travel
Travel trailer space. A parcel of land for the placement of a single
Variance. A modification or variation of the provisions of this chapter,
as applied to a specific
piece of property, as distinct from rezoning.
Watercourse. A natural running stream of water flowing in a particular
direction and having a
definite channel with a bed or banks. A watercourse may be intermittent, but shall be considered
more than mere surface drainage over the entire fall of a tract of land.
Yard. An open space between a building and the adjoining lot line.
(Code 1964, § 19.110; Ord. No. 9958, § 1, 10-3-83; Ord. No. 11373, § 2, 2-16-87; Ord.
11398, § 1, 3-2-87; Ord. No. 11702, § 1, 12-7-87; Ord. No. 12856, § 1, 2-4-91; Ord. No.
1, 11-18-91; Ord. No. 13526, § 1, 12-7-92; Ord. No. 13543, § 1, 2-21-92; Ord. No. 14334, §
1, 1-3-95; Ord. No. 14347, § 1, 1-17-95; Ord. No. 14363, § 1, 2-6-95; Ord. No. 14777, §
Ord. No. 15180, § 1, 3-17-97; Ord. No. 15828, § 2, 12-7-98; Ord. No. 16816, § 1, 3-5-01;
No. 17116, § 1, 12-17-01; Ord. No. 17667, § 1, 5-5-03; Ord. No. 17860, § 2, 10-6-03;
18841, § 1, 1-3-06; Ord. No. 19748, § 1, 12-3-07; Ord. No. 19816, § 1, 2-18-08; Ord.
§ 1, 4-20-09; Ord. No. 20835, § 1, 1-3-11; Ord. No. 21095, § 13, 9-19-11; Ord. No. 21905,
12-2-13; Ord. No. 22109, § 1, 7-7-14)
Cross reference(s)--Definitions and rules of construction generally,
(Ord. 22109, Amended, 07/07/2014, Prior Text; Ord. 21905, Amended, 12/02/2013, Prior Text; Ord. 21095, Amended, 09/19/2011, Prior Text; Ord. 20835, Amended, 01/03/2011, Prior Text; Ord. 20237, Amended, 04/20/2009, Prior Text; Ord. 19816, Amended, 02/18/2008, Prior Text; Ord. 19748, Amended, 12/03/2007, Prior Text; Ord. 18841, Amended, 01/03/2006, Prior Text; Ord. 17860, Amended, 10/06/2003, Prior Text; Ord. 17667, Amended, 05/05/2003, Prior Text; 17116, Amended, 12/17/2001, Prior Text; 16816, Amended, 03/05/2001, Prior Text; 15828, Amended, 12/07/1998, Prior Text; 15180, Amended, 03/17/1997, Prior Text)